As the development of electric vehicles has penetrated into all aspects of people’s lives and social production, whether it is family cars, taxis, online car-hailing, or buses, logistics vehicles, or even large trucks, dump trucks, and special engineering vehicles, all are gradually being replaced with electric vehicles.
Electric vehicles have many advantages. With the further construction and layout of charging piles, it will continue to make charging of electric vehicles more convenient and improve the experience of electric vehicles. The prerequisite for convenient charging of electric vehicles is that the charging pile can be adapted to all electric vehicles to avoid incompatibility between charging piles and electric vehicles, that is, a unified charging pile standard is required.
Like the development of other industries from discover to regulation, the development of the charging pile industry is also a process of gradual standardization. Only standardization can standardize the interface and interoperability between electric vehicles and charging facilities; stipulate product quality and performance requirements for charging facilities to ensure charging safety; stipulate requirements for the large-scale promotion of construction and operation of charging facilities; gradually expand the international market and promote international standardization.
At present, 4 main charging pile standards have been formed internationally.
At present, the 4 main international charging pile standards are: Chinese National Standard GB/T, CCS1 American Standard (combo/Type 1), CCS2 European Standard (combo/Type 2), and Japanese Standard CHAdeMO.
The CCS (Combined Charging System) standard for the combined charging system is derived from the combo standard of the DC fast combined charging system based on the SAE standard of the American Society of Automotive Engineers and the ACEA standard of the European Association of Automobile Manufacturers.
In 2012, the "Fast Charging Association" was formally established at the 26th World Electric Vehicle Conference in Los Angeles, USA. In the same year, Ford, General Motors, Volkswagen, Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche, and Chrysler and other 8 major car companies issued a statement about Establish a unified fast charging standard for electric vehicles, and subsequently announced the joint promotion of the CCS standard. Soon it was recognized by the American and German automobile industry associations.
The advantage of this charging interface is that it integrates ordinary charging and fast charging into one plug and socket, using single-phase, three-phase alternating current and direct current, and successively becoming the common charging pile standards in the United States and European Union countries as well as countries adopting their standards such as South Korea, Singapore, India, Russia and other countries.
This standard represents a commanding height in the industry. It has always been a battleground for the strategists of a technological and industrial power. Japan is able to benefit from its strong automotive technology and industrial strength. Electric vehicles have also developed earlier and are also strongly promoted in terms of charging pile standards. In the face of competition from Japan's charging pile standards, the European Union passed the "Alternative Energy Infrastructure Construction Directive" in September 2014, proposing to ban public charging stations from building Japan's CHAdeMO standard charging piles from 2019. The electric vehicle charging network in Europe is required to implement the CCS Type 2 charging pile standard, and CCS Type 2 has gradually become the main charging pile standard in Europe.
In the CCS Type 2 standard DC fast charging mode, the voltage is 500V, and the output current is 200A. It only takes 30 minutes to fill an electric car with a range of 350 kilometers. At present, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Audi and other brands in Europe all support CCS Type 2 standard charging piles.
The CHAdeMO standard is a standard launched by the Japan Electric Vehicle Association and the Japan Electric Vehicle Charging Association.
In March 2010, Japan's major automakers, the country's largest electric vehicle company, and the government jointly implemented a plan to establish a fast-charging standard for electric vehicles, established the "Electric Vehicle Charging Association" and issued CHAdeMO standards. CHAdeMO, translated into Chinese, means "charging time is as short as a tea break". It can be seen that this is a standard for high-power fast charging.
In the process of promoting this standard to become a global standard, several major Japanese car companies and charging pile operating companies have gone abroad in a group to actively promote it in Europe and the United States to take the lead. Japan's largest automakers such as Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Tokyo Electric Power Company all support this standard. Early electric vehicles that were successfully promoted to the world, such as Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi i-MiEV and South Korea’s Kia SOUL EV, also adopted this standard.
The Japanese government is even more aggressively promoting it. “For every charging pile with Japanese charging standards built in the United States, the Japanese government subsidizes 10,000 US dollars." This is the subsidy level ten years ago. The standard has been promoted to the world step by step. As early as 2012, the CHAdeMO standard has been promoted to 24 countries. It is no wonder that the European Union proposed to ban the construction of Japanese standard charging piles.
Japan CHAdeMO standard charging gun
With the rapid development of China’s electric vehicle industry, China has gradually become the world’s largest producer and consumer of electric vehicles, and has also established an independent charging pile standard, the Chinese national standard GB/T "Standard for Charging Stations for Electric Vehicle Charging Pile". The unification of China is the key to building China's electric vehicle ecosystem. China not only has to face the fiercely competitive electric vehicle market, but also faces the battle for international standards of charging piles.
National standard GB AC charging gun and socket
National standard GB DC charging gun and socket
As early as around 2010, when the domestic electric vehicle industry was just emerging and developing, the industry began to discuss China's use of electric vehicles to achieve corner overtaking in the automotive industry, and compete with automobile powers such as Europe, America and Japan for the formulation of global charging standards.
However, the immaturity of domestic electric vehicle development and the instability of electric vehicle technology in the early stage of the development of domestic electric vehicles have led to a situation where the focus is on vehicle manufacturing, while the construction of service facilities and standards are lagging behind.
Early charging interface standards include three parts: general requirements, AC charging interface, DC charging interface, and communication protocol standards. The four standards were released at the end of 2011. However, due to insufficient application experience and data accumulation at the beginning of the standard formulation, some clauses and technical details of the charging interface and communication protocol standards are not detailed enough. During the application process, there is still a problem of incomplete compatibility between different vehicles and charging facilities. In 2014, the National Standards Committee formally issued a standard revision plan, and the automobile industry and the electric power industry worked together to conduct many discussions and test verifications.
The current national standard electric vehicles usually have AC and DC charging sockets
On December 28, 2015, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, the National Standards Committee, the National Energy Administration, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology and other departments issued five new national standards for charging interfaces and communication protocols for electric vehicles. It will be implemented on the 1st.
The five standards released this time are:
GB/T 18487.1‐2015 "General Requirements for Conductive Charging System of Electric Vehicles"
GB/T 20234.1‐2015 "Connecting devices for conductive charging of electric vehicles General requirements"
GB/T 20234.2‐2015 "Connecting device for conductive charging of electric vehicles AC charging interface"
GB/T 20234.3 ‐2015 "Connecting device for conductive charging of electric vehicles DC charging interface"
GB/T 27930‐2015 "Communication Protocol between Electric Vehicle Off-board Conductive Charger and Battery Management System"
In 2018, five newly revised national standards were released. The five standard revisions have comprehensively improved the safety and compatibility of charging.
At the same time, the country has also formulated and successively formulated high-power charging standards, low-power DC charging related standards, wireless charging related standards, two-way interactive charging and discharging standards for electric vehicles, and special vehicle charging standards.
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